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Monday, August 3, 2020 | History

3 edition of Genetic control of maternal nRNA degradation in the early Drosophila embryo found in the catalog.

Genetic control of maternal nRNA degradation in the early Drosophila embryo

Simon Houston

Genetic control of maternal nRNA degradation in the early Drosophila embryo

by Simon Houston

  • 241 Want to read
  • 30 Currently reading

Published by National Library of Canada in Ottawa .
Written in English


Edition Notes

Thesis (M.Sc.) -- University of Toronto, 2000.

SeriesCanadian theses = -- Thèses canadiennes
The Physical Object
FormatMicroform
Pagination2 microfiches : negative. --
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL19128859M
ISBN 100612541207

In Drosophila, maternal mRNA degradation starts soon after egg activation and is largely complete by the third hour of embryogenesis [8, 11,12]. During the early embryo stage, maternal transcript. In most metazoans, early embryonic development is characterized by rapid mitotic divisions that are controlled by maternal mRNAs and proteins that accumulate during oogenesis [].These rapid divisions pause at the Mid-Blastula Transition (MBT), coinciding with a dramatic increase in gene transcription and the degradation of a subset of maternal mRNAs [2, 3].

The accumulated maternal mRNA is used for protein synthesis in the oocytes during meiotic maturation and even in the embryos to sustain development after fertilization. Therefore, the degradation of accumulated maternal mRNA starts during meiotic maturation, but its rate is slow. Explore the latest full-text research PDFs, articles, conference papers, preprints and more on GENE TARGETING. Find methods information, sources, references or conduct a literature review on GENE.

Genetic control of embryogenesis switches from the maternal to the zygotic genome during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), when maternal mRNAs are destroyed, high-level zygotic transcription is initiated, the replication checkpoint is activated and the cell cycle slows. The midblastula transition (MBT) is the first morphological event that requires zygotic gene expression. Request PDF | Chapter 16 Measuring mRNA Stability During Early Drosophila Embryogenesis | Maternal mRNAs play a major role in directing early Drosophila melanogaster development, and .


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Genetic control of maternal nRNA degradation in the early Drosophila embryo by Simon Houston Download PDF EPUB FB2

Abstract The matemal mRNA degradation pathway acts in the early Drosophila embryo to elirninate a subset of transcripts. This maternai pathway begins to function at or shortly after egg activation. Here it is shown that the wild-type activity of four matemal-effect loci, png, plu, gnu, and temp are involved in the positive regulation of maternai mRNA degradation in the early embryo ofAuthor: Simon Houston.

Early embryogenesis is a unique developmental stage where genetic control of development is handed off from mother to zygote. we studied the contribution of maternal gene expression to the pool of transcripts in the early embryo and how gene expression differs in early female and male embryos.

Divergence of maternal mRNA deposition is a Cited by:   Author summary Genetic control of embryonic development in all animals requires precise coordination between mother and zygote.

The mother provides gene products to the egg to drive the earliest stages of development, until the zygote is able to transcribe its own genome.

Many processes of early development are highly conserved over evolutionary time, and are critical for organism by: 6. Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs), a specific class of to nucleotide-long RNAs produced by the Piwi-type of Argonaute proteins, have a specific germline function in repressingCited by:   Maternal mRNA deadenylation and decay by the piRNA pathway in the early Drosophila embryo.

Rouget C(1), Papin C, Boureux A, Meunier AC, Franco B, Robine N, Lai EC, Pelisson A, Simonelig M. Author information: (1)mRNA Regulation and Development, Institute of Human Genetics, CNRS UPR, rue de la Cardonille, Cedex 5, Montpellier, by: Drosophila embryogenesis, the process by which Drosophila (fruit fly) embryos form, is a favorite model system for genetics and developmental study of its embryogenesis unlocked the century-long puzzle of how development was controlled, creating the field of evolutionary developmental biology.

The small size, short generation time, and large brood size make it ideal for genetic. 1. Maternal mRNAs and Early Drosophila Development. Drosophila embryos rely on maternally loaded mRNAs to both activate and orchestrate the first several hours of development.

These maternal mRNAs, which represent 55 to 65% of the entire protein‐encoding genome (Lecuyer et al.,Tadros et al., a), direct establishment of the embryonic axes, segregation of the future. Maternal to zygotic transition (MZT, also known as Embryonic Genome Activation) is the stage in embryonic development during which development comes under the exclusive control of the zygotic genome rather than the maternal (egg) genome.

The egg contains stored maternal genetic material mRNA which controls embryo development until the onset of MZT.

After MZT the diploid embryo. Future investigation of the regulation of maternal control on developmental events, such as DNA methylation dynamics, in early embryos will better our understanding of the key factors that contributing to maternal reproductive aging and shed novel insights on further improvements in reproductive technologies in both agricultural animals and humans.

An abrupt degradation of maternal stg mRNA during interphase 14 may be involved in terminating the early, maternally controlled nuclear divisions. More importantly, the rapidly changing patterns of zygotically expressed stg mRNA predict the sequence of.

Maternally synthesized localized determinants play an important role in cell fate specification in early Drosophila embryos. Since only a third of the genes in Drosophila have been identified genetically, we carried out a systematic screen for polar localized maternal RNAs in the early embryo as a means of identifying novel molecules that might serve important developmental functions.

The gene products that drive early development are critical for setting up developmental trajectories in all animals. The earliest stages of development are fueled by maternally provided mRNAs until the zygote can take over transcription of its own genome.

In early development, both maternally deposited and zygotically transcribed gene products have been well characterized in model systems.

This is a well-written and clear manuscript that builds on previously published work from the Rissland lab in which they showed that the three proteins involved in translational repression, ME31B, Tral, and Cup, are degraded in a PNG-dependent manner in the early Drosophila embryo.

Here they show that this degradation requires an E2 ubiquitin. Trans-factors that mediate maternal mRNA degradation during the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila.

Three trans-acting factors have been definitively demonstrated to function in maternal mRNA degradation during the MZT in Drosophila. (A) The RNA-binding protein, Smaug, functions to degrade mRNAs as part of the early-acting machinery.

Key words mRNA stability C1 Drosophila C1 early embryo C1 maternal transcripts C1 posttranscriptional control C1 RNA localization C1 translational regulation Oogenesis and early embryogenesis in Drosophila Oogenesis The female reproductive system contains two ovaries, each consisting of about a dozen ovarioles that contain an assembly line of.

Degradation of maternal Hsp83, string and nanos transcripts begins at fertilization, and >95% of the transcripts are eliminated by the MBT. Whole‐mount in situ analysis of transcript distributions in wild‐type early embryos are shown in (A–I) while Northern blots and quantitative analysis are shown in (J) and (K).

All three species of transcripts are present throughout the embryo at. In my lab we study control of mRNA translation, stability and sub-cellular localization in the early Drosophila (fruit fly) embryo. We use a variety of techniques including biochemical, genetic.

Edgar BA, Datar SA. Zygotic degradation of two maternal Cdc25 mRNAs terminates Drosophila's early cell cycle program. Genes Dev. Aug 1; 10 (15)– Edgar BA, Kiehle CP, Schubiger G. Cell cycle control by the nucleo-cytoplasmic ratio in early Drosophila development.

Cell. Jan 31; 44 (2)– controls. (A) Diagram of the degradation of maternal transcripts and the accumulation of zygotic transcripts. Embryo age in minutes after egg laying and correspond-ing nuclear cycle are displayed.

(B) Confocal time series of Drosophila embryos expressing Histone2Av–RFP fu-sion. Nuclear density is used to determine nuclear cycle. RNA interference (RNAi) has been shown to be a powerful method to study the function of genes in vivo by silencing endogenous mRNA with double-stranded (ds) RNA. Previously, we performed in vivo RNAi screening and identified 43 Drosophila genes, including 18 novel genes required for the development of the embryonic nervous system.

In the present study, 22 additional genes affecting. This review focuses on the control of maternal transcript stability in the early Drosophila embryo and how transcript destabilization is necessary for normal development. mRNA degradation. During early development in Drosophila, the spatial information of maternal gradients is translated into discrete transcriptional states determining cell ation transfer depends on reproducibility of the gradients themselves, as well as the ability of cells to accurately measure and utilize morphogen concentrations in biologically meaning ways.

Temporal Control of Maternal RNA Stability in Drosophila. Two transcript degradation pathways function together to eliminate maternal transcripts from the early Drosophila embryo ().One of these pathways begins to function at or shortly after egg activation, independent of fertilization (Fig.

1) ().This “maternal” pathway is active in unfertilized eggs and thus must be exclusively.